Tuesday, September 22, 2015


The Khokhar are people from the Punjab region of Pakistan and northwestern India. The Khokhars were designated as an agricultural tribe and are usually classified as Jat and Rajput. The term agricultural tribe, according to the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900, was at that time synonymous with that of martial race.[1]


Sultan Shahabuddin Ghori undertook many campaigns against the Khokhar in Punjab before he was killed by the Khokhars of the Salt Range in March 1206.[2]
In 1240 AD, Razia, the daughter of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, and her husband, Altunia, attempted to recapture the throne from her brother, Muizuddin Bahram Shah. She is reported to have led an army composed mostly of mercenaries from the Khokhar tribe of Punjab.[3][4]
In 1246-7, Balban mounted an expedition as far as the Salt Range to chastise the Khokhars.[5] His last campaign was undertaken with the objective of subjugating the turbulent Khokhars of the Salt Range.[citation needed]
Although Lahore was reoccupied by Delhi,[when?], it remained in ruins for the next twenty years, being attacked multiple times by the Mongols or by their Khokhar allies.[6] Around the same time, a Mongol commander named Hulechu occupied Lahore in alliance with Khokhar chief Raja Gulchand, the erstwhile ally of Muhammad's father.[7]

Jasrath Khokhar

Raja Jasrath Khokhar (sometimes Jasrat or Dashrath)[8] was the son of Shaikha Khokhar. He became leader of the Khokhars after the death of Tamerlane, after escaping from prison with the intent to take leadership.[clarification needed] He supported Shahi Khan in the war for control of Kashmir against his brother Ali Shah and was rewarded for his victory. Later, he attempted to conquer Delhi, taking advantage of the death of Khizr Khan. The scheme met with partial success as he won campaigns at Talwandi and Jullundur, but was hampered by the seasonal rains in his attempt to take over Sirhind.[9]

Modern era

In reference to the British Raj's recruitment policies in the Punjab, vis-à-vis the British Indian Army, Tan Tai Yong remarks:
The choice of Muslims was not merely one of physical suitability. As in the case of the Sikhs, recruiting authorities showed a clear bias in favor of the dominant landowning tribes of the region, and recruitment of Punjabi Muslims was limited to those who belonged to tribes of high social standing or reputation - the "blood proud" and once politically dominant aristocracy of the tract. Consequently, socially dominant Muslim tribes such as the Gakkhars, Janjuas and Awans, and a few Rajput tribes, concentrated in the Rawalpindi and Jhelum districts, ... accounted for more than ninety per cent of Punjabi Muslim recruits.[10]


Bhati (also spelled Bhatti)[1] is a clan of Gurjars,[2] Rajputs[3] of Chandravanshi origin,[4] and Jats found in the Indian Subcontinent.[5]
Some Bhatis were nomadic cattle-keepers. In the years preceding the Indian rebellion of 1857, these groups lost land by decisions made by the British East India Company, which assigned to Jat peasants grazing lands formerly frequented by the Bhatis in the Delhi and Haryana regions. The British were not enamoured of nomadic tribes, whom they thought exacted protection in the areas that they visited, and the policies of land reform were designed in part to limit this mobility.[6]
At least some of the Bhati Rajput of Rajasthan practised female infanticide between 1883-1998.[3] One princess, a daughter of the Hindu Bhati Rajput ruling family in Dipalpur, was married to Salar Rajab, a Muslim ruler, and gave birth to Firuz Shah Tughlaq. This was one of several examples of inter-religious royal marriage alliances during the period of Turkic Muslim rule in India.[7] Rajput Bhati princesses were also married into the royal family of Jodhpur.[8]

Monday, December 31, 2012

Amir Khusro and Depalpur
Depalpur which is known as the oldest living city in the subcontinent after Multan and Peshawar. Historians claim it has been in existence for 2,100 years, i.e. presumably as old as Harappa. The town was the provincial capital of the Tughlaq dynasty and saw its years of glory under their rule. In the 13th and 14th centuries Depalpur, with its strong citadel, acted as the frontier fortress to Delhi and played a significant role in the defence of the subcontinent against the Mongol invasions. Amir Khusro, the celebrated poet and musician, fought against the Mongol hordes and was imprisoned in this historic fort for some time.

Daud Bandagi Kirmani

Daud Bandagi Kirmani

Hazrat Daud Bandagi was the 28th descendant of Musa Al-Mubarqa the son of Imam Muhammad al-Taqi ibne Imam Ali al-Rida.
After receiving formal religious instruction in Dipalpur and Lahore at the hands of eminent scholars of the time, Shaikh Daud decided to get all worldly and material pursuits.
Spiritual Education
Shaikh Daud, in the quest of spiritual enlightenment, spent a lot of time in great worship. Shaikh Daud belonged to Awaisi tariqat, that is, without any direct teacher or murshid, he later joined the Qadiri silsila at the hands of Shaikh Hamid Gillani at Satghara.
Village of Shergarh
After formally becoming a member of the influential Qadiri Silsilah, Daud Bandagi Kirmani established his khankah in the remote village of Shergarh (District Okara, Pakistan), present between Lahore and Multan. Shergarh at that time was part of the Chunian, subsequently Shergarh became the center of the Qadiri Silsila and the saints Khankah began to attract thousands of people from all walks of life.
Muslim historian 'Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni 
The famous 16th century Muslim historian 'Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni went to Shergarh in AD 1572. He lived there for four days. The detailed account of his visit along with a biography of the saint is preserved in Volume II and III of his famous work, Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh.
Mughal Emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar
According to Badaoni, the Mughal Emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar when visited Pakpattan passed through Shergarh and after hearing about the sanctity and influence of the saint was desirous of meeting him. Akbar sent General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh, an important nobleman of the court, to the khankah in order to obtain permission from the saint. Shaikh Daud, who never associated with those who possessed worldly power or wealth, sent Shahbaz Khan back with the message that he (Shaikh Daud) always remembered the Emperor in his prayers and thus there was no need for him (the Emperor) to come physically in his presence for the purpose of prayer and benediction.

It is the great spiritual power of Hazrat Daud Bandagi, who converted a large number of Hindu Jat and Rajput tribes of the Punjab to Islam. Some of the tribes converted either fully or partially by the saint are, Chatta's, Cheema's, Virks, Hanjra, Dehotar, Warraich, Gurhai, Maan and Sansi in District Gujaranwala. In District Sialkot, Bajwa's, Basra's, Cheema's, Ghumman's, Kahlon's, Gurhai, Sahi and Sindhu. In district Sahiwal, Ihrar's, Haan's, Hutiana's, Majhiana's and Murdanay Baluch.

Saturday, January 30, 2010



Depalpur Tehsil


Government- Nazim- Naib nazim

Renala khurd also have area called Fateh pur which is also name in india too. Fateh pur Okara has beautiful history of sufis mystics but now a days the sajada nasheen (peer family) on Fateh pur are involved in robbing and raping cases, giving shelters to terrorists and most wanted criminals, any one can catch them.Sajada nasheens are close relatives to peer pagarah in sindh and other big authorities including military peoples

1/Sp Wesawewala    Amli Moti    Awan Kalan   Barict (Chak Bawa)  Basirpur-1   Basirpur-2  Behlol Pur  
Bhela Gulab Singh   Bhoman    Shah    Bhone    ManzebtaBhuta  MohabbatBonga     SalehChipli Pur
Depalpur-2  Depalpur-3  DhullianaFarid Pur  SohagGuddar   Mulkana   Haveli Lakha-1  Haveli Lakha-2
Haveli Lakha-3  Hujra Shah Muqeem-1  Hujra Shah Muqeem-2  Hujra Shah Muqeem-3 Jaith Pur JhujhKalan   Kani Pur   Klair Kalan   Mahant Darshan  Mancharian  Mandi Ahmadabad  Maroof
MazharAbad  Mehar Shah Khaga  Mohib Ali UtarMuhammad Nagar  Mustafabad Nahal Mahar
Nama Jindeka  Pandat ManfoolPur  Phullan Toli  Pipli Pahar Qadir Abad  Qila Javand Singh QilaTara Singh
Rajowal  Ratta Khanna  Rehmat Wala   RohilaTajeyka    Rukan Pura  Shah Nawaz Khan  Shah Yakka
Shergarh  Khair Pur

Dipalpur is a town in the Okara District of the Punjab, Pakistan. It is situated 25 kilometres from the district capital Okara on a bank of the Beas River in Bari Doab.[1] The town is notable for being the site of several battles in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and is also associated with the history of the Bhatti clan.
Ancient History
Coins from the Saka (Scythian) period found in the area suggest that it was inhabited as early as 100 BC. After Multan, this is probably the oldest continuously occupied site on the subcontinent.
General Alexander Cunningham writes that the area was mentioned in the works of Ptolemy under several different names. According to local legend, Dipalpur got its name from Raja Dipa Chand when he captured the city.[when?] Dipalpur was the first fortification on the route from the Khyber Pass to Delhi.

Dipalpur gained fame as an outpost that played a significant part in defending the Delhi Sultanate against the Mongol invasions of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
In 1285, Shahid Khan, son of Emperor Balban, was killed in a bloody battle against the Mongols and the famous poet Amir Khusro was taken prisoner. The tomb where Muhammad Tughlaq is interred may still be seen in an isolated part of the city, although it has become rather dilapidated.
Ghazi Malik

Under Ala-ud-din the town became the headquarters of Ghazi Malik (also known as Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq). Firuz Shah Tughluq made a royal visit to the town in the fourteenth century. Mughal Emperor Akbar made it the headquarters of one of the sarkars (revenue districts) of Multan Province.
The town dwindled in importance during the British Raj. It had a significant number of Hindus before the partition of India, which dispersed most of them. It is now a market town and the capital of the local tehsil.
Historical Architecture
In the past, Dipalpur was surrounded by a fortified wall, rising to the height of 25 feet and strengthened by a deep trench. When and by whom this wall was constructed is not known, but it was renovated, repaired and improved during the rule of Firoz Shah Tughluq and later by Abdur Rahim Khan-e-Khanan, who was the governor during the time of Akbar. Firoz Shah Tughluq constructed a grand mosque and palaces. He also excavated a canal from the river Sutlej to irrigate gardens around the town.
Wide and airy tunnels linked the royal residential quarters inside the fort to the adjoining gardens outside. There were 24 burgs (musketry holes) on the fortification wall, 24 mosques, 24 bavlis (ponds) and 24 wells at the town's peak. The trench, ponds and tunnels have been filled in , but in some places the location of the trench can still be defined. Most of the wall has been razed. Two of the four massive gateways with pointed arches also exist though they are badly damaged and their wooden doors have vanished. Later coats of cement have marred the original architecture of the gateways.
Hindu Monastery
Besides doors with decorated latches, Jharokhas, bay windows and cut brick works, the most noticeable feature inside old Dipalpur is the monastery of Lal Jas Raj, a guru much venerated by the local people.
According to the famous legend, Lal Jas Raj was the young son of Raja Dipa Chand, the founder of Dipalpur. He sank into the earth due to a curse by his stepmother Rani Dholran.[clarification needed] Raja Dipa Chand constructed this monastery in the memory of his son. Today, the chamber is dilapidated, the doors are jammed and a stairway is used for storage. The structure itself is crumbling. According to local residents, there used to be a grand annual "mela" held here. It was also used by Hindus as a place to perform the Sardukahr (head-shaving ritual) until the partition, but "nobody comes anymore".
Another notable structure in the old section of Dipalpur is a saray (inn) near the monastery of Lal Jas Raj. It was a spacious building with airy rooms on four sides, a big courtyard in the centre and four arched entrances. The inn, like most of the older structures in town, is now in a state of disrepair. It has been divided and subdivided so many times by successive occupants that the original shapes are obscured. Even the verandas have been converted to create rooms.

Hujra Shah Muqeem.

Many Muslim saints have come to preach in this area. Hazrat Bahawal Haq commonly known as Bahawal Sher Qalandar came from Baghdad and settled in the village of Patharwall near Dipalpur. The saint constructed a hujra (small living room) and a mosque outside the village. His grandson Hazrat Shah Muqeem continued his mission. The village came to be known as Hujra Shah Muqeem. This is the place mentioned in the famous Punjabi love story Mirza Saheban, although there is no historical evidence that Jati Sahiba(Mirza Sahiba) came here and prayed that "The streets should desert when where my lover Mirza roams about".
The Mughal king Akbar, along with his son Saleem and royal entourage, stayed in Dipalpur when he came to pay homage to Saint Hazrat Farid Ghang Shakar in 1578. Akbar named the corridor Bari Doab by combining the syllables of the names of the two rivers, Beas and Ravi, that bounded the area. Baba Guru Nanak also stayed in Dipalpur for some time. The ruins of a Gurudwara mark the place.

Firuz Shah Tughlaq

Dynasty Tughlaq Dynasty Religious beliefs Islam
Sultan of Delhi1351-1388
Succeeded byGhiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II

Firoz Shah Tughlaq (Urdu: فروز شاہ تغلق, Hindi: फ़िरोज़ शाह तुग़लक़), 1309 - 1388 in Delhi, was a Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty from 1351 to 1388. He was the son of a Hindu Rajput princess of Dipalpur.[1] His father's name was Razzab (the younger brother of Gazi Malik). Gazi Malik means Gayasuddin Tughluq. He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughluq following the later's death from a fatal illness, but due to widespread unrest Firuz's realm was much smaller than Muhammed's. Firuz was forced by rebellions to concede virtual independence to Bengal and other provinces. He was known as an iconoclast.BiographyUnder his rule, Hindu Brahmins were exempted from paying mandatory tax Jizya levied on Hindus.Firoz probably learnt many lessons from his cousin Muhammad's rule. He decided not to reconquer areas that had broken away. He decided to keep nobles and the Ulema happy so that they would allow him to rule his kingdom peacefully. In fact, there were hardly any rebellions during his rule. We come to know about him from a 32-page brochure he wrote. Firoz allowed a noble's son to succeed to his father's position and jagir after his death. The same was done in the army, where an old soldier could send his son, son-in-law or even his slave in his place. He won over the Ulemas by giving them grants of revenue, which gave him political power. He increased the salary of the nobles. He stopped all kinds of harsh punishments such as cutting off hands. Firoz also lowered the land taxes that Muhammad had raised. Firuz's reign has been described as the greatest age of corruption in medieval India. It can be imagined from the fact that Firuz once gave a golden tanka to a distraught soldier so that he could bribe the clerk to pass his sub standard horse. The case of Imadulmulk Bashir, the minister of war who began his career as an inherited slave of Firuz, in course of his service is said to have accumulated wealth to the tune of thirteen crores, when the state's yearly income was six crores and seventy-five lakh tankas.Feroze Shah's tomb with adjoining madrasa, in Hauz Khas Complex, DelhiHe was the first Muslim ruler to think of the material welfare of his people. Many rest houses, gardens and tombs were built. A number of madrasas (Islamic schools which provided Koranic education) were opened to encourage literacy. He set up hospitals for the free treatment of the poor. He provided money for the marriage of girls belonging to poor families. He commissioned many public buildings in Delhi. He built over 300 villages and dug 5 major canals for irrigation bringing more land under cultivation for growing grain and fruit.Hindu religious works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian. He had a large personal library of manuscripts in Persian, Arabic and other languages. He brought 2 Ashokan Pillars from Meerut and Topara, carefully wrapped in silk, to Delhi. He re-erected one of them in his palace at Firoz Shah Kotla.He had about 180,000 slaves, who had been brought from all over the country, trained in various arts and crafts. They however turned out to be undependable. Transfer of capital was the highlight of his reign. When the Qutb Minar struck by lightning in 1368 AD, knocking off its top storey, it was replaced by the existing two floors by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, faced with white marble.Firoz Shah's death led to many rebellions. His lenient attitude had weakened the sultan's position. His successor Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II could not control the slaves or the nobles. The army had become weak. Slowly the empire shrank in size. Ten years after his death, Timur's invasion devastated Delhi.

Gurudwara Bhuman Shah
Dipalpur Distt Okara
This village called Bhuman Shah is in the Jurisdiction of P.S. and Tehsil Dipalpur of district Okara. It is located at a distance of 24 kilometers from Dipalpur on Dipalpur-Haveli Lakha road. According to Bhai Kahan Singh Ji, Dashmesh Ji had given blessing to Bhai Bhuman, Shah that his langar would continue serving.The shrine is built in the style of a big fort and inside this fort-like structure the Gurdwara of Baba Sri Chand, residence of Baba Bhuman Shah , the Samadh of various Mahants are located alongwith hundreds of rooms for visitors, langarkhana and the tank.There are four big gates to enter this shrine and the walls are decorated with colourful pictures the sayings of Gurus. More than 1000 Ghumaon of agricultural land is endowed to shrine. This building is now in charge of the Evacuee Waqf Board. The present condition of the building is miserable, the walls have developed cracks and the roofs have collapsed. In case this building collapses in the time to come an invaluable treasure of art will also be destroyed with it.
Discovering Dipalpur 
By Asghar Javed
April 6, 2003

Once the centre stage of many battles for centuries, Dipalpur is now a quite town situated on the banks of old River Beas in Bari-Doab region. It is famous as an outpost that has played a significant part in the defence of the kingdom of Delhi against Mongol invasions in the 13th and 14th centuries.The coins of the Sakas (Scythian) period found in Dipalpur suggest that the place was inhabited in 100BC. After Multan, this is probably the oldest living city in South Asia. General Alexander Cunningham writes that the place figures out in the works of Ptolemy under different names. As per the tradition, Dipalpur was named after Raja Dipa Chand once he captured it.In 1285, Muhammad Tughlaq, son of Emperor Balban, was killed in a bloody battle with the Mongols and the famous poet Amir Khusuro was taken prisoner in Dipalpur. The dilapidated tomb of Muhammad Tughlaq stands neglected today. Under Ala-ud-Din, the town became the headquarters of Ghazi Malik. The Mughal Emperor Akbar made it the headquarters of one of the sarkars (revenue district) of the Multan province. The town was relegated to neglect during the colonial period. Partition led to changes and it is now a market town and tehsil headquarters of Okara district.A fortification wall surrounded Dipalpur in the past, which was strengthened by a deep trench and other defences. Feroz Shah Tughlaq constructed a grand mosque, palaces and excavated a canal from River Sutlaj to inundate the trench and irrigate gardens around the town. Wide and airy tunnels linked the royal residential quarters inside the fort to the adjoining gardens outside.There were 24 burgs (musketry holes) on the fortification wall, 24 mosques, 24 ponds and 24 wells in the town in its hay days. The trench, ponds and tunnels have been filled but at places the location of the trench can still be defined. The fortification wall has vanished. Only two of the four massive gateways, with pointed arches, exist, though they are badly damaged and are without their wooden doors now.The old part of the town is now a jungle of houses and the remains of the once magnificent buildings of bygone days, adorned with beautiful wood engravings, can be seen in a few places. The narrow and winding streets lined by redeveloped and shoddily built new houses give Dipalpur a murky look.The most noticeable feature in old Dipalpur is a huge building that used to be a saray (inn). It was a spacious building with airy rooms on four sides, a big courtyard in the centre and four arched entrances. The interior of the inn is dark and has been divided and subdivided by its occupants so many times that one cannot make out its original layout. Even the verandas have been clogged to create additional rooms.Near the inn is the monastery of Lal Jas Raj, a guru much venerated by the Hindus. The dilapidated and empty chamber stands infested with bats and rats. Termite is eating its woodwork. One cannot open the doors to the chamber because they are jammed and a stairway is serving as storage for dried dung cakes kept by the neighbours.Baba Guru Nanak also stayed in Dipalpur for sometime. A completely ruined Gurdawara is indicative of the place where Guru Nanak stayed. Muslim saints also came to this area. Hazrat Bahawal Haq, commonly known as Bahawal Sher Qalandar, came from Baghdad and settled in a nearby village. Grandson of the saint Hazrat Shah Muqeem continued his mission. The village came to be known as Hujra Shah Muqeem — the place that is mentioned in the famous Punjabi folk love story Mirza Saheban. However, there is no historical evidence that Jati Saheban came here.Dipalpur was declared as a notified area in 1949, and then raised to the status of Municipal Committee. Now it is a typical Pakistani town with all the hazards of urbanization: congestion, mixed traffic, encroachments, potholed roads and piles of domestic waste. The authorities do not seem to notice the plight of the residents, particularly those living in the old part of the city.The challenge of restoring ancient Dipalpur to its old magnificence might be too much to expect, but a survey could at least be carried out to record the places having essential, historic, social and architectural value.

Do you want to come to Dipalpur with me?" I asked a colleague of mine last weekend."Why?" his reply was instantaneous, "What is Dipalpur?""I will tell you all about it if you promise to go with me."He eyed me suspiciously but agreed anyway.Our journey to Dipalpur commenced at 6 a.m. on the Sunday morning. I was sleepy as I got into the car and when I offered my younger companion the drive, he was more than willing. It was a fine spring morning and the breeze was intoxicating. It did not take me long to fall asleep, thus missing the rest of the journey to Dipalpur.We reached Dipalpur an hour and forty-five minutes later. We were both starving when my friend pulled over opposite a rather neat caf and the aroma of fresh puris being prepared made us dash to the restaurant. The caf was neat and almost empty as we seated ourselves at a clean table. The service was good and efficient, and it did not take us long to devour a healthy breakfast. A nice cup of tea afterwards revived our energies as I prepared myself for the tour ahead; my friend reminded me that I owed him an explanation for us being there. Admitting his right to know, I prepared myself for the narration, while I asked him to order another cup of tea.
Dipalpur is situated about one hundred and twenty miles southeast of Lahore, and is considered one of the oldest living cities in the country. The exact age of the city is hard to calculate but it is believed to have been in existence during Alexander's invasion of the sub-continent. According to Arrain, a race, which he referred to as Kathaeans, held the areas in and around Dipalpur.Dipalpur is believed to be the Diadala of Ptolemy. According to local tradition, Alexander had a tough time at the hands of the locals and was forced to retreat. This is an inaccurate version of Alexander's invasion of the country between the Ravi and the Bias. He overran the areas including Dipalpur with little effort, and much of the populace fled. It was during his campaign beyond Dipalpur and Kamalia that he was wounded in battle, but eventually the Malli Raja submitted to him.Dipalpur was founded by a raja of the Bahtner tribe by the name of Sri Chand and was named Srinagar after its founder. Raja Sri Chand had no children, and it was only after his priest's offering to the Goddess Devi that he was blessed with two sons, Bhim and Lalujas Raj. The two boys were swallowed by the earth after being cursed by one of the Raja's wives who was struck by a cat being teased by the boys. The priest rushed to rescue the two boys but only managed to save the locks of Lalujas Raj. A temple was erected at the site where the two boys were swallowed up by the earth. The building still exists, but is mostly in ruins.The present day name of Dipalpur is attributed to one of Raja Salavhan's son, Dipa, who re-established the town. Another tradition attributes the present name to a Raja Har Singh who conquered Dipalpur and subsequently changed its name. Nevertheless, the antiquity of the town has been clearly established and its existence is traced back to the Indo-Scythian era.Dipalpur's ascendancy to being one of the strongest fortresses of Punjab began during the time of Feroz Shah Toghlak in the fourteenth century. In the year 1358, the Mughals invaded the country and destroyed the city of Dipalpur before Feroz Shah could send his troops to defend it. Feroz Shah was very fond of Dipalpur. He erected a wonderful mosque in Dipalpur and built a canal from the river Sutlej. He frequented this place during his hunting excursions. It was also in Dipalpur that one his sons, Mohammad, was killed while fighting against the Mughals. Prince Mohammad's mausoleum still exists and is in ruins.Dipalpur flourished subsequently, and at the time of Timur's invasion, it was the second largest city in Punjab, both in size and importance. It is believed that Dipalpur at the time had 84 towers, 84 mosques and 84 wells. When Timur invaded, the people of Dipalpur abandoned their city and fled to Bhatner. The town was spared by Timur out of reverence for Baba Farid in adjoining PakPattan.Dipalpur survived, but only to be ravaged by one of Timur's descendants, one hundred and fifty years later. In 1524, Daoulat Khan Lodhi invited Babar to invade India. He had been removed from his office by the Lodhi King of Delhi. He joined forces with Babar who met the worst resistance in Punjab at Dipalpur. Babar was successful in the end and Dipalpur was comprehensively ravaged by the Mughal troops.Dipalpur's miseries remained unattended for the next half-century or so. It was during the time of Akbar that the city was reconstructed; the outside wall, which exists to date, was built by the governor of Multan, and the people of Dipalpur were repatriated. In 1578, Akbar, on his way back to Delhi, stayed in Dipalpur accompanied by his son Jehangir. A well was built for the royal entourage. The present day library replaced the well that had existed for nearly four centuries.Dipalpur's destiny was finally sealed when Akbar decided to shift his provincial capital from Dipalpur to Lahore. The degradation of a once marvelous city continued through the years. PakPattan and Kamalia, once its principalities, grew in significance, adding to Dipalpur's misfortunes. Finally the drying up of the Bias sealed its destiny and Dipalpur could never regain its lost splendor. The warring factions of the areas, and finally Sikh occupancy brought Dipalpur down to its knees. Much of its historic past lies buried in mounds that litter the countryside between the city and the canal a fair distance away.It took me about half an hour or so to present to my friend a brief history of the city. He was clearly impressed and was as eager to start the tour as I was a while back. We started our journey with a drive around the circular road that goes around the main city. The city wall built during the time of Akbar is pretty much intact. The entire wall around the city has been annexed by the dwellers as part of their houses, and what is left of its ramparts is in ruins.We parked the car opposite one of the gates to the city. We were looking for a guide who could lead us through the city, when we found a couple of children converging on us. They were curious and attracted by the camera hanging around my neck. After a brief conversation, they volunteered to be our guides.We started our journey through a huge gate bearing a plaque Bab-I-Lodhi, presumably renamed after the Afghans of Kasur who conquered Dipalpur following Alamgir's death. The gate was originally known as the Multani Gate, then Basirpur Gate, and now is called Lodhi Gate. There were four such gates, of which only two exist now. Its western neighbor, formerly known as Lahori Gate, is now known as PakPattan Gate.Much of the city lies at an elevation. The streets are wider compared to the ones in the walled city of Lahore, and are generally clean considering there is no provision for waste disposal. The air was clean and pleasant as we continued our climb. Much of the inner city is littered with old buildings with overwhelming Hindu influences in architecture owing to the Sikh rule in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Without exception, all these buildings have two things in common: a foundation stone and an om inscribed at the entrance.Our first stop was the temple built on the site of the disappearance of the two brothers, Bhim and Lal. The building is mostly intact except for the roof, which has collapsed. The presence of a few red stone tiles suggests that the building had been robbed of more than just the care. The altar, also made of red stone, is pretty much intact and the recent remains of a candle suggested that visitations to this place were more frequent than what one would expect. Our guides suggested that we take our shoes off before setting foot on the area marked as the last resting-place of the boys. We decided to stay clear of that area.Other than the Serai, as the locals refer to the temple, the mosque is the only other building of considerable significance. It had been reconstructed some nine years ago, which hardly compliments its lost glory. There are several ruins of small temples, communal buildings and communal bathrooms. Remains of a once large and stately-looking building now serve as a barn for cows. Its pillars are covered with cow-dung cakes and it reeked of manure.The entire tour of the walled city lasted not more than twenty minutes. We climbed down to where our car was parked and headed towards the other side of the city. The huge wooden door of PakPattan Gate was still there, and so were the visible signs of neglect. The gate is mostly intact, but from the looks of it, I doubt if it would be there for the next generation to see.To our right, from where we stood watching the magnificent architecture that once witnessed the mightiest armies this part of the world has ever seen enter through its opening, was a huge mound. Presumably, those were the remains of the citadel that Raja Sri Chand built for his wife who was banished from the city following the disappearance of the two lads.Our guides informed us that was all Dipalpur had to offer us, except for the bazaar where we could find a book about Dipalpur. The old bazaar is narrow as expected and once again, we had to leave our car behind. There are shops of all sorts. One of the boys directed me to a printing press responsible for publishing the book on the history of Dipalpur. The cover definitely suggested it to be worth buying. However, a brief reading on the way back to Lahore left a very bad taste in my mouth. The writer has done great injustice to his place of birth. There is hardly any mention of the place's history; instead the effort seems to be to please the bourgeois of the area.My friend who waited by the car while I was busy making the purchase, which I regretted later, informed me that Dipalpur was famous for its lassi. However, neither of us could have a glass of lassi at that stage. We, therefore, thanked our guides and headed home.

Manzoor Ahmad Wattoo

Mian Manzoor Ahmad Wattoo (Urdu: منظور احمد وٹو) is a Pakistani Muslim jatt politician and has been part of the country's political landscape for well over thirty years. In May 2008, Manzoor Ahmad Wattoo left Pakistan Muslim League (Jinnah) and joined Pakistan Peoples Party.He has been appointed as the advisor to the Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani.Manzoor Ahmad Wattoo was the head of Pakistan Muslim League (Jinnah) political party in Punjab. He was first elected, in 1985, the Speaker of the Provincial Assembly of Punjab, the largest province of Pakistan. Thrice elected for the same office, he secured the office of the Chief Minister of Punjab in 1993 on the PML (Junejo) ticket after a vote of no-confidence in the Punjab legislature against PML (Nawaz)'s serving chief minister Ghulam Haider Wayne.After a tug of war between Wattoo and Nawaz Sharif, the then restored (by Supreme Court) Prime Minister of Pakistan and head of the Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML (N)), all assemblies were dissolved and only after a fresh election, Wattoo was elected the Chief Minister of Punjab again on PML (Junejo) ticket, ruling a coalition comprising chiefly of Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), PML (Junejo), minorities, and some independents.It was in 1995 that Wattoo formed his own PML (Jinnah), when he parted ways with his cousin Hamid Nasir Chattha who wanted to be the president of PML (Junejo), which Wattoo was previously a part of. The differences cropped up in the same year when Wattoo was removed as the Punjab Chief Minister in the power struggle between the province (headed by PML (Junejo) and the center (headed by rival PPP), leading Arif Nakai another PML (Junejo) candidate to be the new Chief Minister. During all this, the issue of Ch.Shaukat Nawaz Goraya(the, then, judge and formerly member of PPP) arose as he was suspended on bogus issues, it is an inside report that all the political players of Punjab chased that issue as Mr.Goraya was very close to Sardar Arif Nakai,Hamid Nasir Chatta,Shujaat Hussain,Pervaiz Elahi,Makhdoom Amin Fahim,Faisal Saleh Hayat,Ghulam Mustafa Khar,Mir Balakh Sher Mizari(Former PM Pakistan),Nazar Mohammad Gondal. So, this was an excellent opportunity for Mr.Manzoor Wattoo to improve his relations with all the opposition parties and he did what the conditions wanted of him by restorting Shaukat Goraya who was suspended on bogus,personal and political grounds. It is an off the record fact that when Manzoor Wattoo asked about Mr.Goraya, more than 90% of the CEC and all the MPAs and MNAs of PPP supported Mr.Goraya and Mr.Gul Nawaz Warraich(the,then,adviser to Wattoo(CM Punjab)), Makhdoom Amin Fahim and Nazar Mohammad Gondal played a vital role in his restoration. This was just an effort by Mr.Wattoo to ease down the political situation of Punjab but it didnot prove to be as fruitfull as anticipated.This decision of Wattoo to reinstate Goraya stands unprecedented both in Pakistan and World History.Painted corrupt by the PPP, PML (N), he was removed from the office of Chief Minister only to be restored to office a year later in 1996 by the High Court. Corruption allegations and court proceedings were started against Wattoo by arch rival and then Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif of the PML(N), Mian Manzoor Wattoo was sentenced by an Accountability court to more than ten years in imprisonment besides being fined ten million rupees only later to be set aside by the courts in Pakistan.Amid mounting tensions within his district between his faction and his rival Syed Afzal Ali Gillani, his son Khurram Jahangir Wattoo was elected the Nazim of the populous tehsil of Dipalpur. Widely regarded as an astute politician, almost having never miscalculated any political situation besides trying to reconcile with his arch rival Mian Nawaz Sharif, Manzoor Wattoo was initially released on bail later to be exonerated of any wrongdoing. Earlier convictions were set aside and he was allowed to run for any public office.His daughter Rubina Shaheen Wattoo served as a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan for the PML(Q). He actively began taking part in politics and soon became a close ally of Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf. Having merged his political party, Pakistan Muslim League (Jinnah), in to the ruling PML (Q) on presidential advice, he was made the Senior Vice President of the ruling party. His relations with the party's leadership remained sour from the beginning, who tried at marginalizing Wattoo and anyone associated with his person.Mian Manzoor Wattoo remained part of the ruling PML (Q) until November 2007, despite differences with the party leaders Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain and the Punjab Chief Minister, Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi who suffered heavily under Wattoo's reign in Punjab in 1993-95.With the upcoming elections Mian Manzoor Wattoo left the PML(Q) due to differences in seat allocations for his constituencies and decided to run as an independent candidate along with the former local PML(Q) branch of Dipalpur.Mian Manzoor Wattoo announced to join Pakistan Peoples Party on May 29, 2008 along with party members in Islamabad.Currently serving as Federal Minister for Industries& Production.

The University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF)

Sub-Campus Dipalpur

Agriculture is the major sector of Pakistan’s economy. It contributes 25% of GDP. About 70% of population is directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture. Pakistan has 22.6 m ha of cultivated land which is about 25% of the total land area of the country. Per capita arable land in 1981 was 0.23 ha which declined to 0.16 ha. This is much below the estimated average of 0.6 ha per capita from which dietary requirement can be met with traditional agriculture. Therefore, there is no alternate but to increase the output of existing arable land through technological innovation and site specific management strategies aiming at increased per acre productivity and protecting our environment.
Keeping in view the importance of better management practices and site specific solutions to problems in agriculture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad has established its sub-campuses at three different locations viz Depalpur, Toba Tek Singh and Dera Gazi Khan. At present the academic activities are in progress in a building provided by Depart of Education, Govt. of Punjab in Government Degree College, Depalpur. The sub-campus has highly qualified manpower needed for functioning of the campus.

Academic Programmes

The University offers an integrated programme of teaching and research in all disciplines of agriculture at one campus to ensure interaction and exchange of ideas among scientists of different specialization. Emphasis is also laid on the teaching of Pakistan and Islamic Studies so that the graduates acquire Islamic spirit and values and a sense of patriotism for their country. The following degree courses are offered:
1st Degree Courses
B.Sc. (Hons) Agriculture : 8-semester programme after F.Sc. (Pre-Medical)
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.) Faisalabad: 10-semesters programme after F.Sc (Pre-Medical)
B.Sc (Hons) Animal Husbandry : 8-semester programme after F.Sc. (Pre-Medical)
B.Sc. Agricultural Engineering : 8-semester programme after F.Sc. (Pre-Medical), 8-semester programme after F.Sc. (Pre-Engg.) / Licentiate from a Polytechnic Institute holding a three-years Diploma.
B.Sc. (Home Economics) : 4-semester programme after F.Sc. (Pre-Medical) for female students.
Postgraduate Degree Programmes
M.Sc./M.Sc. (Hons.) four semesters.
(offered in 35 subjects, after completing first degree course)
M.Phil. in pure science four semesters.
(Offered in 5 subjects after completing M.Sc. in the relevant subject)
Ph.D. (offered in 28 subjects, four semesters.
(after completing M.Sc. in the relevant subject)
An evening College has also been started in the University where M.B.A. (Regular and Executive), M.Com. and M.A. (Economics & Sociology) and M.Sc. Chemistry, Bio-Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Physics, Fibre Technology, Home Economics (Food & Nutrition), Statistics and Computer Science is being offered.
In view of the latest development in science and technology as also the national requirements, the courses of studies offered at the University are constantly reviewed to keep them in tune.
Diploma and Certificate Courses
The University under the short courses program organises training facilities in agriculture and allied disciplines for in-service, pre-service and self-employed personnel, farmers, and others interested in agriculture. Separate courses are provided for ladies on the subjects and skills peculiar to women folk. The Division has developed 124 courses of different duration leading to diplomas and certificates, and this number is increasing day by day according to the growing national needs of the people by adding new courses. The duration of these courses depends upon the nature of the course and requirements of the participants. All these courses have by and large a practical bias.
Following diploma courses are regularly offered:
C.T. Agriculture (Boys)
Diploma in Rural Home Economics (Girls)
Diploma in Arabic
Mali Class
Veterinary Assistant Diploma Course
Diploma in Grain Storage Management
Postgraduate Diploma Course in Food Science (for Army Personnel)
Agricultural Business Management
Computer Science
Pre-release training course for army personnel.
Out of the above mentioned courses, C.T. Agriculture for boys and one-year Diploma in Rural Home Economics for girls have been highly appreciated by the common masses for their usefulness and utility. The said two courses are meant for the preparation of F.Sc./F.A. pass candidates as Elementary School Teachers for teaching agriculture and home economics subjects in middle schools.


Mandi Ahmadabad (Urdu: منڈی احمد آباد‎), previously called Mandi Hira Singh is a town of Depalpur Tehsil in Okara District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. This city was renamed in 1993 by the Government of the Punjab in respect for Services of Mirza Ahmad Baig Famous local politician. It is a Union Council, an administrative subdivision, of Depalpur Tehsil and is part of the NA-147 constituency of the National Assembly.[1]